Bronchitis in a child is the most frequentinflammatory disease of the respiratory system, especially in early childhood. Bronchitis is an acute or, in some cases, chronic inflammatory process in the tracheobronchial tree.
Causes of the disease
Bronchitis in a child is caused by pathogenicbacteria or viruses. Among bacterial pathogens the most common are staphylo-, pneumo- or streptococci, from virus pathogens viruses of influenza or parainfluenza, measles, pertussis or other respiratory viruses. The disease can occur when exposed to various factors, for example, from too cold or hot air, chemical irritants, the presence of chronic infection in the respiratory tract, the effects of allergens, etc.
The causative agent in the body in mostof cases occurs through inhaled air. Less infectious agent can get with blood or lymph flow. Penetrating into the mucous membrane of the bronchi, the causative agent causes the appearance of an acute inflammatory reaction, with edema and increased secretion of the bronchial secretion. In young children, these processes can lead to the rapid development of bronchial obstruction (blockage) and acute respiratory failure.
The secret secreted by the bronchi in the initial stages of the disease is mucous, with the aggravation of the process it acquires a purulent character, and the inflammation seizes the deeper layers of the bronchial wall.
Signs of bronchitis in children
The onset of the disease is characterized bymalaise, a slight increase in temperature and the appearance of dry nausea cough. These symptoms are often characteristic of a normal respiratory infection. Very often bronchitis in a child is a consequence of the spread of ARVI in the lower respiratory tract. When examining and listening to the chest, you can hear hard breathing. Khripov usually does not occur in the initial period. If the inflammation is aggravated, the child's well-being worsens significantly, the body temperature increases, the cough becomes wet, and sputum is difficult to separate. There may be shortness of breath. Children especially hard bronchiolitis. It is an inflammation of the small bronchi. At the same time, their lumen is clogged with thick purulent mucus, causing pronounced dyspnea and oxygen starvation of tissues. Such a child has wheezing and noisy breathing, at a distance one can hear shortness of breath while exhaling. On examination, participation in breathing of auxiliary respiratory muscles can be noted. In young children, the presence of bronchiolitis often combines the development of pneumonia, so they do not differentiate between themselves.
Cough, as already mentioned above, at the beginning of the diseasedry, after adequate treatment, it turns into a damp and gradually begins to expectorate sputum. Auscultatory you can listen to wet wheezing or hard breathing.
Children have allergies when exposed to an allergen,develops bronchitis without fever. Diagnosis of such bronchitis usually does not cause difficulties, since there is a clear dependence of the development of the disease on the allergic agent.
The diagnosis of bronchitis in a child isthe basis of complaints and clinical manifestations. Unlike pneumonia, with bronchitis there is no respiratory failure. If you perform a blood test you can see signs of inflammation (an increase in white blood cells, ESR, a shift in the leukocyte formula), if the cause of bronchitis is an allergy, then the number of eosinophils increases.
Auscultatory listening to hard breathing, there may be dry or wet rattles.
Bronchitis in a child should be distinguished from pneumonia, asthma.
Treatment of the disease
The child needs peace, copious drinking. Inhalation or inside give expectorants, perform alkaline inhalations. If necessary, prescribe antibiotics. The temperature is brought down by paracetamol or ibuprofen. Prescribe antihistamines.