Congenital developmental abnormalities are verya lot of. They can be very different. Some of them are not dangerous or harmful. Others are considered very difficult and even incompatible with life. One of the anomalies of development is the so-called twin-parasite. This phenomenon is extremely rare, therefore the mechanism of its development has not been fully studied. This anomaly differs not only a pronounced cosmetic defect, but also is capable of damaging the health of the baby. Therefore, it is so important to diagnose this dangerous phenomenon in time. Treatment of this defect is carried out only surgically.
Such a phenomenon as a twin-parasite occursonly with multiple pregnancies. In this case, embryos develop in one child's place and are formed by dividing a single cell-the zygote. Another name for this defect is the fruit in the fetus. Frequency of occurrence of a similar anomaly - 1 newborn by 500 thousand. This phenomenon is considered more common among males. The ratio of boys and girls who have a twin-parasite is 1.3: 1. As a result of incorrect division and intrauterine development, one of the embryos is formed not completely, but only partially. As a result, fragments of his body or internal organs merge with a full fruit.
Due to the fact that this violation looks liketerribly, these children are called mutants and monsters. Also uneducated people describe this phenomenon with the phrase "pregnant newborn." In fact, children with this defect are normal and do not have any chromosomal abnormalities. The need to get rid of the parasite does not always arise. This is required only in cases when there is a pronounced violation of vital functions.
Everyone knows such a phenomenon as SiameseTwins. It implies two people, intergrown in the process of impaired intrauterine development. One of the varieties of this anomaly are the Siamese twins-parasites. They are formed in the early stages of pregnancy, when there is a division of cells and the laying of tissues. In most cases, this defect can be detected already on the first ultrasound of the fetus. The main cause of this anomaly is the incorrect formation of the vasculature of the embryo. In an organ that exists only at the beginning of pregnancy - the yolk sac - there are many anastomoses that should not normally be present. As a result, one of the fruits is deprived of blood supply and ceases to develop. Since the second fetus continues to grow normally, it grows in size and as it absorbs a defective embryo.
Location of the fetus parasite in the bodynormal twin can be different. Most often it is in the abdominal cavity. There are also cases of the formation of twins-parasites in the chest and even in the brain. Sometimes parts of a defective fetus go beyond the body cavity. Then they bulge out of the torso of a normal child. It can be visible to the naked eye twin parasite in the abdomen, on the back, etc. Despite the fact that this pathology is a terrible picture, most often the child does not have other abnormalities and is healthy. Sometimes a defective fetus lies deep in the abdominal cavity and is closed by the intestine and other organs. Therefore, it can be found already in adulthood.
Despite the fact that in the initial periodpregnancy is established as a multiple, twin-parasite is not a viable embryo. Its development is disrupted already at 3 weeks. Therefore, he does not have time to fully form. Most often, embryo-parasites develop only a few rudiments and parts of the body. The brain substance and internal organs are usually absent. In some cases, rudiments of bone tissue, lower or upper limbs are found. Nevertheless, it is associated with a normal fetus through the vessels. After absorption, the fetus-parasite ceases to develop and can only gain mass. Due to the fact that the blood supply of a defective embryo is carried out, a normal embryo can tolerate oxygen starvation. As a result, a reverse arterial perfusion syndrome arises. If the parasite continues to gain weight, then this can be dangerous for the health of the child. In children with this anomaly, there is often a syndrome of circulatory failure, or CHF.
The appearance of the fetus in the fetus is infrequent, thethere are no fewer known cases. This phenomenon was first discovered in the early 19th century. Currently, this phenomenon is diagnosed with ultrasound in the first months of pregnancy. The occurrence of twins-parasites in the body are found all over the world. Examples are: a boy from Peru (at the time of the operation the child was 3 years old), a 9-year-old girl from Greece. Similar cases were recorded in India. Among them - the discovery of a twin-parasite in the body of a 36-year-old man.
Treatment of this blemish is possible only with the help ofoperation. As a rule, surgical intervention allows to completely remove the fetus parasite. The operation is considered difficult and has risks. Therefore, they resort to it only when necessary, when the parasite is a danger to life. Also, the fetus can be removed if it is small in size and not attached to vital organs and vessels. The medical literature describes the operation conducted in India (2005), which lasted 27 hours.