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Chronic laryngitis: features and forms of the disease

By laryngitis is understood as an inflammatory process,which affects the laryngeal mucosa and vocal cords. Most often the disease begins with the defeat of the upper respiratory tract, which occurs against the background of the development in them of pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms. If the inflammation does not last a long time (more than three weeks), then adults and children develop chronic laryngitis.

Features of the disease

The inflammatory process in the larynx and the vocal cords can be a huge inconvenience in everyday life. With chronic laryngitis, the affected area extends to the entire larynx.

Laryngitis may appear against a background of overexertionvocal cords, which is often found in singers, teachers, in people of other professions, where the vocal cords experience increased tension. It is also not advisable to breathe the mouth in the cold with cold air so as not to catch inflammation.

The course of chronic pathology often has a wavy character and lasts a very long time, even after leaving the profession (teacher, singer), the disease remains with a person for life.

Competent therapy aimed at reducingintensity of the disease, it is necessary that a person can remain socially active and not experience difficulties with the voice function. Doctors agree that the treatment of chronic laryngitis requires much more patience and strength than eliminating acute pathology.

chronic laryngitis

Types of chronic disease

In accordance with the international classification of diseases of the tenth revision (code J37.0 for ICD-10) chronic laryngitis is divided into three types:

  • catarrhal;
  • atrophic (dry);
  • hypertrophic (hyperplastic).

Each form has its own peculiarities of percolation.

Catarrhal

Catarrhal chronic laryngitis hasnon-aggressive course of the disease. This pathology does not cause changes in the tissues of the larynx, and also shows no bright clinical symptoms. Most often, this kind of disease is accompanied by a cough, tickling in the throat and mucus. In adulthood, there is a change in the timbre of the voice, especially towards evening.

Atrophic

Dry chronic laryngitis is considered a diseasepeople of mature age, in children, he does not occur. In the process of illness, the mucous membrane of the larynx is atrophied, which most often occurs due to prolonged work in harmful production, and also against the background of smoking.

Atrophic laryngitis (dry namechronic laryngitis in ICD-10) is accompanied by more severe symptoms, primarily - dry cough, perspiration, dryness in the throat and regular secretion of a viscous secretion. When separating the dried crusts, bloody discharge can form. In the patient, the general condition worsens, the sense of weakness increases, the working capacity decreases, and care is reduced.

Hypertrophic

Chronic hypertrophic laryngitis causescompaction and increase in the size of the laryngeal mucosa. When rubbing the enlarged surfaces, ulcers can form and erosion may develop. Symptoms of the disease are hoarseness in the voice, sore throat, a constant feeling of irritation. Doctors agree that the development of chronic hyperplastic laryngitis can become a harbinger of cancer.

overstrain of ligaments

The causes of the emergence of chronic pathology

Laryngitis of a chronic nature does not appear from scratch. There are a number of reasons that contribute to a protracted illness:

  • frequent respiratory diseases, acute laryngitis;
  • other pathologies of the respiratory tract and nasopharynx;
  • disorders in the hormonal background of the body;
  • uncontrolled use of antibiotics;
  • addiction to alcohol or smoking;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • frequent exposure to contaminated premises;
  • excessive stress on the vocal cords and sharp temperature changes.

Despite such a multitude of provocativefactors, much depends on the human immunity. With a good natural defense of the body, the risk of even acute laryngitis in a chronic form is extremely low.

For an adult person an important role is played by harmfulhabits. Smoking and alcohol, as well as difficult working conditions (air pollution) significantly increase a person's predisposition to develop chronic laryngitis.

laryngitis in children

Causes of the disease in childhood

Chronic laryngitis in children often appears due to unfavorable external factors and conditions that surround the child. But the features of health also can not be left unnoticed.

Among the main reasons are:

  • curved nasal septum;
  • polyps in the nasal cavity;
  • being in a room with over-dried air (unventilated room);
  • unfavorable climate and living conditions.

The development of certain diseases leadsthe deterioration of the blood supply of the larynx and increases the risk of chronic laryngitis. To such diseases it is customary to relate problems with the gastrointestinal tract, malfunction of the cardiovascular system, manifestations of allergies, immune disorders.

Specific features of the course of the disease

The main feature of chronic laryngitis is called perspiration in the throat, changes in the voice timbre (hoarseness appears), spitting.

The first complaints about this condition appear in adults who strongly strain the voice apparatus in everyday life, the degree of intensity of manifestations is individual.

In the case of children, the disease can develop against the background ofa long cry, which is typical for kids. However, medical statistics suggest that chronic laryngitis is a rare case in children under 4 years old. After this age, the pathology manifests more often against the background of complex respiratory diseases.

In the older age, pathology can appear andas an independent disease that is provoked by smoking, alcohol, weakening of immunity. In adults, there is a phenomenon of loss of voice, especially in the evening or immediately after sleep. It was found that during the menopause, menstruation, pregnancy in women, the symptoms become more intense.

The stage of exacerbation in children acquires moreA dangerous character, accompanied by an increase in temperature. For a small child, the disease can be dangerous and provoke serious complications, so it is extremely important to diagnose the laryngitis in time and undergo the necessary treatment.

Complications of the disease

at the doctor

From a medical point of view, the lightest formchronic laryngitis is considered catarrhal. With proper and timely treatment, the disease is not accompanied by complications. However, if the deterioration of the state of smoking, harmful working conditions or life, a bad ecology, then this form can degenerate into another, more dangerous.

The chronic form of laryngitis results in a series of complications:

  • failure in the motor function of the larynx, which can trigger a significant change in the voice and paresis of the vocal cords;
  • complete loss of the ability to talk;
  • the appearance of dyspnea;
  • narrowing of the larynx, which can lead to suffocation;
  • the development of cysts, polyps and other formations on the surface of the laryngeal mucosa.

The most dangerous form is the hyperplasticlaryngitis, which in some cases requires immediate treatment and mandatory hospitalization. This form of pathology leads to the development of ulcers and false cysts of the larynx, which have the feature of suddenly bursting. The most terrible and complex complication is the formation of cancerous tumors and laryngeal carcinoma.

diagnosis of the disease

How to diagnose a disease

Treatment of chronic laryngitis begins with the diagnosis of the patient's condition and the definition of the form of developing pathology. The examination by a doctor includes a number of necessary procedures:

  • anamnesis during counseling;
  • examination of the pharynx, detection of abnormalities;
  • determination of the presence of risk factors for the development of chronic disease;
  • examination with laryngoscopic mirrors and endoscopes;
  • checking the functioning of the vocal cords.

When hypertrophic laryngitis is detecteda more serious examination may be required, which includes computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and tissue biopsy. If there is a suspicion of cancer complications, the doctor gives a referral to an oncologist, in order to confirm or deny the detected risks.

How to treat chronic laryngitis without drugs?

Methods of treatment directly depend on the formdisease and individual health status of the patient. In this case, there are general rules of therapy, which in this case is divided into non-medicinal and medicinal.

Non-drug recommendations include:

  • complete refusal to smoke;
  • decreased vocal cord tension;
  • avoidance of being in dusty premises, harmful production, use of special protection equipment;
  • humidification of air;
  • avoiding overheating;
  • if possible, to plan a trip to a location with a marine climate;
  • treatment of concomitant diseases of the nose, throat, maintenance of immunity;
  • changing the diet, getting rid of heavy and irritating food.

Such actions in many ways will weaken the speed of development and the intensity of the disease, which will help the body to cope with the disease more quickly.

inhalation procedure

Medical method of treatment

Treatment of chronic laryngitis in adults and children also includes taking medications in the complex:

  • reception of antibiotics, which is often prescribed for exacerbation of the disease;
  • conducting procedures for inhalation (alkaline) with the use of "Lazolvan";
  • use of drugs that are aimed at suppressing cough;
  • use of drugs that have an expectorant effect;
  • carrying out irrigation of the throat, which is also possible with the resolution of lozenges and plates.

It is believed that the catarrhal form of the disease can becure quickly at home. On the recommendation of the doctor, immunomodulators are added to the listed medicines, and a course of physiotherapy can also be recommended. If it is necessary to restore the voice, special oils and solutions are used, a course of speech and vocal phonopedia is conducted.

With the development of atrophic laryngitis inchronic form to said complex of drugs, it is customary to add proteolytic enzymes that enter the body through special inhalation procedures. Such therapy allows to accelerate the process of recovery of injured larynx tissues. Compulsory are laser therapy, electrophoresis, the use of a complex of vitamins B.

Hypertrophic laryngitis in most casesrequires surgical intervention, the usual methods of therapy are effective only in the early stages of the disease. Antibiotics in this case are necessary, also apply methods of local cauterization.

Surgical method of treatment

To surgical intervention resorted to thosecases where conservative therapies did not have the desired effect. This development is possible with atrophic and hyperplastic chronic laryngitis.

The operation is performed using a lasercontrol of a video camera. The main task is to remove the affected tissues of the larynx. If there are papillomas, cysts, fibromas, other formations in the larynx, then they are subject to excision in order to further conduct their complete histology.

In some cases, removal of growths that are localized around the vocal cords is required.

Errors that can not be made

In the treatment of chronic laryngitis, it is very important not to harm. To do this, remember a number of rules and strictly follow them:

  • it is contraindicated to use remedies for which an allergic reaction may occur;
  • in no case do not use in the treatment of mustard plasters;
  • Alcohol preparations can not be used for irrigation of the throat;
  • the use of alcohol is contraindicated;
  • Do not use hot inhalation;
  • it is necessary to exclude onions and garlic from eating;
  • Do not in any way ignore the doctor's recommendations and do not miss the prescribed procedures.
successful treatment

It is important to understand that the main way to avoidAn unpleasant disease is to carefully monitor your health. In time and until the end to cure respiratory diseases, monitor the condition of the nasopharynx, strengthen immunity and take care of your own vocal cords (avoid overstrain and hypothermia).

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