The knee joint is one of the largest joints in our body. Dislocations of the lower leg are rarely recorded. They are observed in approximately 2% of patients (in relation to other dislocations).
The structure of the knee joint is very complicated. The knee is formed by the femoral and tibial bones. From the hip in the formation of the knee, the lateral and medial condyle of the thigh are involved, which are separated by an intercondylar fossa. The medial condyle is much more lateral. The cranial surfaces of the hip form a slightly concave surface for the patella. By the way, the patella is the largest sesamoid bone that is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle. The caudal surface of the patella is covered with a cartilaginous tissue. In the process of motion, the patella moves relative to the femur, and when folded it occupies the intercondylar position.
Shin-joint structure of the knee jointis formed by the surface of the tibia (lateral and medial condyles). It should be noted that the surface of the joint of the inner condyle is slightly concave, and the lateral one is more flat and long. Between the presented condyles is the intercondylar elevation.
The structure of the knee joint and incongruencethe surfaces of the joints of the tibia and thigh are compensated by the presence of interarticular cartilages localized on the condylar cusps of the tibia. Inter-articular cartilages with their posterior and anterior ends are attached to the intercondylar elevation. From the cranial side, the transverse ligament of the knee connects the menisci. Menisci are crescent shaped, the lateral margin of which is slightly thickened and fused with the joint capsule, and the medial, directed into the joint cavity, is somewhat pointed. The ventral surface of the meniscus is flat; dorsal - somewhat concave. Given this feature, the knee joint is divided into two parts: the lower one - slit (meniscus-tibial), upper (meniscus-femoral). Due to their relative mobility and elasticity, menisci adapt to different positions of the knee joint, which, of course, positively affects its biomechanics.
The structure of the knee joint is also different,that it has intraarticular cruciate ligaments that cross each other, they reliably connect the tibia with the thigh. The cranial cruciate ligament originates from the lateral condyle of the medial surface of the femur and downward and medially to the inner intercondylar tubercle. The caudal cruciate ligament originates from the lateral surface of the medial condyle of the thigh to the outer intercondylar lump. Menisci along with the presented ligaments perform the functions of a kind of shock absorber.
Arthrosis of the joints is the most commonpathology of the joints, which affects at least 20 percent of the world's population. This pathology refers to the degenerative-dystrophic processes that develop in the hyaline cartilage. With the development of the pathological process, the cartilaginous tissue is gradually destroyed, along with this the structure of the joint is broken, that is, the bone is restructured and deformed. In this case, spines are formed - osteophytes. With their formation there is pain in the joint, movement is limited.
Osteoarthritis of joints: treatment
There are two types of arthrosis joint treatment -conservative and operational. In conservative treatment, therapeutic gymnastics, warm baths before bed, physiotherapy (UFO, diadynamic currents), massage, magnetotherapy, intraarticular oxygen therapy are prescribed. It should be noted that the conservative method of treatment is ineffective. A good result is achieved with surgical intervention.