Vestibulopathy - what is it ... Vestibulopathy: description, causes and characteristics of treatment

The human body maintains its position inspace through the functioning of the vestibular apparatus. The main objective of this system is the ability to keep balance, analyzing the movement and location of the body. The development of vestibular dysfunction is called vestibulopathy. What is it and what are the main manifestations of the disease, considered in the article.

Basic Disease Concepts

Few patients asked themselves the question: "Vestibulopathy - what is it?", Because the disease is not so widespread. Such a term refers to a complex of disorders of the vestibular apparatus, characterized by the inability of the latter to perform its functions and maintain the position of the human body in space.

vestibulopathy what is it

Vestibulopathy, the symptoms and treatment of which willdiscussed below, can develop as a separate violation in the body, and in the form of one of the syndromes of another psycho-vegetative disorder. In the second case, the treatment and diagnosis of the disease become more difficult, since it is closely interwoven into the overall clinical picture, along with other somatic, autonomic, and emotional-affective manifestations.

Disorder of the vestibular function mayappear at an early age. This pathological condition is considered as the failure of the otolith apparatus. In childhood, this is manifested in the form of motion sickness on a swing, in an elevator, and public transport.

Over time, the symptoms of disorders begin to resemble conditioned reflexes. That is, the clinical picture of an attack develops even before the factor that causes it has begun to act.

Etiological factors of the disease

The following causes of vestibular dysfunction are distinguished:

  • diseases of the inner ear;
  • organic brain damage;
  • pathological processes of the cervical spine;
  • traumatic injuries;
  • tumors;
  • infectious diseases;
  • age changes.

Among the diseases of the auditory analyzer, which can cause the development of vestibulopathy, distinguish labyrinthitis, infarction of the maze, Meniere's disease.

vestibulopathy syndrome

Infarction of the maze often occurs on the background of age-related changes. Patients complain of sudden hearing loss and the appearance of vestibular disorders.

Meniere's disease is characterized by hearing loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, a feeling of congestion and tinnitus. This disease is associated with pathological processes in the inner ear.

Labyrinthitis has bacterial or viralcharacter The inflammatory process is localized in the labyrinth of the inner ear. In addition, vestibulopathy may be caused by poisoning by toxic substances or drugs.

Common manifestations

All forms of this disease have common and specific manifestations. The disease is characterized by the following general symptoms:

  1. Dizziness may be temporary orpermanent. Each patient has his own, individual perception of vertigo. Some complain about the feeling of impossibility to fix the view, others - that all objects rotate in one direction.
  2. Headache can manifest pain of varying strength and intensity.
  3. Visual impairment - flies or dark circles appear in front of the eyes of the patients, vision is reduced.
  4. Violations on the side of balance - patients stagger, may fall, they have no sense of stability.
  5. Nystagmus - there is a movement of the eyeballs, which has a rhythmic character. Eyes can move in any direction.
  6. Nausea, vomiting.

cephalgia vestibulopathy

Types of vestibular disorders

The following forms of vestibular dysfunction are distinguished:

  • vertebral vestibulopathy;
  • vestibulopathy acute peripheral;
  • posttraumatic vestibular disorder.

Each form of the disease is characterized by its etiological factors, as well as the general and specific symptoms of the clinical picture.

mcb vestibulopathy

According to the ICD, vestibulopathy and all its manifestations are code H81. They belong to the group of diseases of the inner ear (H80-H83).

Vertebral form

This type of vestibular disorders is directly related to pathological processes in the cervical spine. The causes of development can be such violations:

  • osteochondrosis;
  • osteoporosis;
  • disc or vertebral failure;
  • clamping of the nerves;
  • impaired microcirculation.

The disease is characterized by frequent attacks.dizziness, which may be systematic or rare. When moving or turning the head, patients complain of discomfort, a feeling of instability. The patient can not focus on the subject, there is a feeling of nausea when trying to visual fixation on objects that move.

Some patients develop centralvestibulopathy syndrome. It has paroxysmal and acute onset. The patient is disoriented in space, there is severe dizziness and cephalalgia. Vestibulopathy with such manifestations is dangerous possibility of complications.

Peripheral form of the disease

Acute peripheral vestibulopathy - what is it?is it? Inflammatory processes in the nerve of the internal course of the auditory analyzer cause the development of this form of the disease. The clinical picture is accompanied by such manifestations:

  • paroxysmal dizziness;
  • imbalance;
  • eye movement, independent of the patient's desire;
  • hearing has no changes.

peripheral vestibulopathy

Etiological factors are still unknown. It is assumed that the trigger mechanism of this form may be bacteria or viruses. Many patients complain of the development of symptoms of an acute respiratory viral infection in history before the onset of attacks of vestibular disorders.

Peripheral vestibulopathy is manifested by a feeling of fear, nausea, vomiting, long dizziness, noise in one ear and a feeling of congestion in it. The level of hearing remains unchanged.

Complication of this form can become encephalopathy. Vestibulopathy, the treatment of which must be started at the first symptoms, rarely causes such severe complications.

The development of the disease due to injury

Post-traumatic vestibulopathy - what is it? This is a form of disorder of the vestibular apparatus, the cause of which becomes a traumatic damage to the eardrum, the wall of the labyrinth or nerve tissue.

Etiological factors of development:

  • brain contusion;
  • damage to the bones of the skull;
  • psychogenic dizziness after injury;
  • decompression effects.

The attack of dizziness is quite long, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, nystagmus, instability during movement. Symptoms disappear only after a few weeks.

Diagnostic examination

Vestibulopathy, the symptoms of which may bea sign of disorders of the vestibular apparatus or the syndrome of another disease, is quite easily diagnosed. However, finding the cause can take a long time.

The patient is examined first.neurologist. This diagnosis includes ophthalmoscopy, assessment of the state of the facial and auditory nerve. The work of other groups of nerves is checked, including the Babinsky symptom.

Fingerprint test, knee-heel and diadochokinesis test allow to assess the state of the cerebellum.

vestibulopathy symptoms

Magnetic resonance imaging is also prescribed.cervical spine to determine the possible development of the vertebral form of the disease. The doctor examines the condition of the bones, vertebrae, muscular and articular apparatus.

Consultation of the otorhinolaryngologist with the examination of the eardrum is obligatory. In case of its traumatic injury, the ENT doctor evaluates the tympanic cavity.

Principles of therapy

Vestibulopathy, the treatment of which should becomplex, has a favorable outcome for early seeking specialized care. Symptomatic therapy is performed first. It includes the use of the following groups of drugs:

  1. Anticholinergic drugs inhibit the activity of vestibular structures. These are drugs based on platifillin and scopolamine. More often they are used to prevent the onset of seizures.
  2. Antihistamine substances - "Dramin", "Bonin", "Dimedrol" - pass through the blood-brain barrier.
  3. Benzodiazepines are effective in dizziness, inhibit the work of the vestibular apparatus (“Relanium”, “Lorafen”, “Lorazepam”).
  4. Drugs with anti-emetic effects: "Pipolfen," Meterazin "," Zerukal "," Metoclopramide "," Motilium ".

In periods of remission, you can use elements of manual therapy, massage, reflexology, treatment with leeches, magnetic therapy and other possible methods.

Vestibular rehabilitation

This is a specially designed complexmeasures aimed at the early restoration of normal operation of the vestibular apparatus. The highlight of the program is gymnastics and gait training.

Vestibular gymnastics are permissible.only in cases where there is no progression of the disease. It is shown in a stable condition of the patient. The sooner gymnastic exercises begin, the more effective the result will be.

vestibulopathy treatment

The principle of vestibular gymnastics isconducting exercises in which the movements of the torso, head and eyes are sensoryly inconsistent. First, the patient feels a sense of discomfort when performing, but soon gets used to it.

The patient learns to walk with his eyes closed, stand on one leg, throw back his head, alternately opening and closing his eyes, standing with his eyes closed on one knee.

Preventive measures

The development of bouts of vertigo canWarn, adhering to certain preventive measures. Eat right, exercise, alternate modes of rest and work. It is also necessary to treat diseases that can trigger the development of vestibulopathy in time. These are diseases of the brain, nervous system, spine, ENT diseases.

Vestibulopathy, the symptoms and treatment of which are now known to you, is amenable to correction and treatment with timely identification of the cause of the disease and seeking help from a doctor.

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