Stroke: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences

Many people are worried about what causes a stroke,symptoms and treatments, as well as exactly what this disease is. The disease is very dangerous in its course and existing complications that affect a person after elimination of the acute phase of the disease. The only way to save the patient - urgent hospitalization and emergency measures to normalize well-being.

It is very important to know what the causes of a stroke can be, so that you can take preventive measures in time and prevent this disease from occurring.

Feature of the disease

Regardless of the causes of a stroke, it is a pathological change in blood circulation in the brain, manifested in lesions of a neurological nature.

Signs of a stroke

As a result of these processes, some parts of the brain lose their functional abilities, which adversely affects the functioning of the organs and systems controlled by these areas.


The classification of strokes is quite wide and includes provoking causes, developmental mechanism, peculiarity and size of the lesion. It is customary to distinguish such species as:

  • ischemic
  • hemorrhagic;
  • lacunar;
  • extensive;
  • spinal;
  • acute;
  • microstroke;
  • repeated.

Ischemic stroke is one of the most commonbrain damage among all other types. It can be caused by a disruption in the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to brain cells, which can occur due to vasoconstriction. Hemorrhagic stroke is a consequence of the rupture of cerebral vessels, as a result of which, blood fills the cavity. This leads to the formation of hematoma and edema.

Extensive stroke - any massive defeat. It has more pronounced symptoms and often leads to the death of the patient or the loss of working ability for a long time. In addition, they are classified by severity.

Ischemic stroke

The most frequently observed ischemicbrain damage. It is diagnosed mainly in older people, over the age of 60 years. Among the main causes of ischemic stroke can be identified:

  • change in blood properties;
  • heart disease;
  • artery disease;
  • diabetes;
  • bad habits.

Often such an attack occurs completelyunexpectedly at night. The mechanism of this process is based on the violation of the patency of blood vessels. This is mainly due to the blockage and narrowing of the arteries. In this case, the flow of nutrients and oxygen to the brain cells is disrupted, which causes their necrosis.

Usually, causes of ischemic stroke are closelyinterrelated with various diseases occurring in the body. When you turn off a certain part of the brain from the blood circulation, the symptoms of the disease appear already during the first hours and can persist for more than a day. The disease itself can occur during the formation of thrombosis as a result of smoking, stress, malnutrition, hypothermia.

Stroke stroke

It is important not only to know the causes of a stroke, but also what are its main types according to the degree of damage. In particular, there are such varieties as:

  • transistor;
  • small;
  • progressive;
  • extensive.

The easiest way is a microstroke ortransistor, as the insignificant area is affected and the tissue is restored literally within 24 hours. According to the pathogenesis of the ischemic form of stroke is divided into such types as:

  • thromboembolic;
  • hemodynamic;
  • lacunar

Thromboembolic type of diseasecharacterized by the formation of thrombus, and is also associated with embolism of the arteries, as well as atherosclerosis. A pathological process occurs with an increase in symptoms throughout the day and may have focal lesions of various sizes. The hemodynamic type provokes vascular spasms and prolonged nutritional deficiencies. It is often caused by low blood pressure, myocardial ischemia and bradycardia. It can manifest itself in the form of a sharp attack or in steps.

The lacunar type infects small arteries. It is formed mainly in the subcortical areas and has a small lesion. Among the main provoking factor to highlight hypertension.

Hemorrhagic stroke

Intracerebral hemorrhage can bedue to exposure to injury. In addition, among the main causes of hemorrhagic stroke, anomalous insight of the vessel walls should be highlighted. As a result of this, their rupture and blood flow occurs, which leads to the blocking of the function of the brain areas. Basically, vascular insight changes due to frequent arterial hypertension.

During the course of this type of disease, brain cells are damaged. The causes of hemorrhagic stroke are caused by blood clots and vascular spasms occurring in the background:

  • avitaminosis;
  • intoxication;
  • atherosclerosis.

In addition, a breach may occur underexposure to high blood pressure caused by hypertension. Intracerebral haemorrhage occurs completely unexpectedly when the vessels rupture. Often, this condition occurs during the day under the influence of significant psychological and physical stress and stress.

Subarachnoid stroke

Causes of Subarachnoid Stroketypes are associated with a head injury or aneurysm rupture. Damage to the blood vessel located on the surface of the brain, provokes the release of blood into the space located between the meninges.

Among the factors, irritants need to highlight drug use, anemia, poor blood clotting. Often this type of hemorrhage is localized in the lower part of the brain, as well as on the surface.


Despite the fact that age is the main provocative factor, however, among the main causes of stroke, you should also highlight such as:

  • hereditary factor;
  • tobacco smoking;
  • malnutrition;
  • insufficient physical activity;
  • the presence of concomitant diseases.

People who have suffered a stroke are mostlythere are several provoking factors. Older people are at the greatest risk, especially if they often have high blood pressure, they have a sedentary lifestyle and are overweight. However, young people are also not insured against the occurrence of this disease.

Often, stroke is seen in men, but it kills.more women. This is largely due to life expectancy. Causes of stroke in women may be associated with contraceptive use and pregnancy.

Causes of stroke

Equally important is racialaffiliation. Most often, the disease affects members of ethnic minorities. The greatest difference is in young people. According to the research, socio-economic factors have a great influence.

Among the main causes of stroke in men and womenneed to highlight smoking. If a person smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, then he has a much higher risk of developing the disease than non-smokers. It can remain very high for 14 years after quitting.

Among the main causes of stroke in young peopleYou can highlight the abuse of alcohol and drugs, especially methamphetamine and cocaine. In addition, anabolic steroids, which are attached to sports accessories and athletes' clothing, significantly increase the risk.

Anti-inflammatory drugs and frequent stress can lead to the occurrence of the disease.

The occurrence of the disease in childhood

The causes of stroke in children are mainly related to factors such as:

  • congenital anomalies of brain vessels;
  • hemolytic anemia;
  • dangerous infectious diseases;
  • DIC-syndrome.

Since the nervous system of the child is able to recover, with a competent timely treatment it is possible to achieve the normalization of the health and functions of the brain.

The main symptomatology

The first signs of a stroke are very strong.dependence on the location and size of the lesion. It is worth noting that the symptoms of hemorrhage can be more pronounced, and in case of extensive damage, the patient’s death mainly occurs. In a person who feels bad, it can be assumed that vascular disorders are due to such signs as:

  • numbness of certain parts of the body;
  • loss of control;
  • headache;
  • double vision and visual impairment;
  • sensory and motor impairment;
  • vomiting, dizziness, nausea.

All these symptoms can only be recognizedthe patient, provided that he is conscious. However, an acute violation of cerebral circulation often causes fainting, from which the patient cannot leave.

Be sure to know what the reasons are andsymptoms of stroke, so that you can provide timely medical care to the victim. It is worth remembering that a person in such a state should not be shaken, trying to seat him, since such actions will only aggravate his state of health.

In the acute period of any type of stroke, neurologistssecrete cerebral and neurological disorders. The basis of the development of cerebral symptoms is hypoxia due to ischemia or increased pressure and hemorrhage. Among the main symptoms are:

  • severe headaches;
  • disturbance of consciousness;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • convulsions.

Neurological manifestations indicate damage to a specific area of ​​the brain. Among the main symptoms can be identified such as:

  • violation or complete loss of motor functions;
  • violation of sensitivity on the opposite side of the lesion;
  • changing the position of the eyes;
  • omission of the corners of the mouth;
  • speech impairment;
  • the occurrence of pathological reflexes.

All these signs are very important in terms of prognosis, as well as determining which part of the brain has suffered.

If the lesion has affected the subarachnoid space, this is followed by:

  • severe headache;
  • severe cerebral symptoms;
  • the occurrence of coma.

Neurologists consider defeat a dangerous conditionbrain stem, since in this area the most important nerve centers are concentrated, ensuring the vital activity of the body. In this case, stroke becomes the cause of the patient’s death, as a very strong hemorrhage occurs. Among the main symptoms should be highlighted:

  • loss of consciousness and coma;
  • bilateral paralysis;
  • violation of sensitivity;
  • violation of swallowing function;
  • impairment of breathing and cardiac activity.

Extensive ventricular hemorrhage is a very serious threat to the life of the patient. Among the main signs you need to select a sharp impairment of consciousness and coma.

Hemorrhage in the cerebellum threatens very rapid development of edema, which leads to the death of the patient. Among the main signs of this state should be highlighted:

  • severe headache in the back of the head;
  • vomiting;
  • dizziness;
  • lack of coordination;
  • speech disorder.

Since the frontal lobes are responsible for manypersonality functions, their defeat leads to mental disorders, as well as convulsive seizures. Human behavior changes very drastically almost beyond recognition, however, paralysis, motor and speech disorders are also observed.

With the defeat of the temporal region there are such signs as:

  • hearing impairment;
  • loss of ability to perceive sounds;
  • the formation of temporal epilepsy;
  • hallucinations.

Be sure to know what may bethe main causes of stroke and symptoms of the occurrence of the violation, as this will provide timely assistance to the patient, which increases his chances of recovery.

Conducting diagnostics

The causes of brain stroke may be the mostdifferent, as well as its symptoms. However, it is very important to conduct a timely comprehensive diagnosis in order to detect the disease. The sooner it can be diagnosed, the better the prognosis for the patient and the greater the chance of recovery. Diagnosis includes:

  • physical and neurological examination;
  • study of the patient’s medical history;
  • carrying out laboratory tests;
  • mapping tests.

Many of these procedures are performed to evaluatethe degree of risk of extensive strokes in the future. For patients whose damage is very severe, first of all, it is necessary to determine the course of the disease, since drug therapy is prescribed on the basis of the data obtained and some drugs are most effective only in the first 3-4 hours after the lesion. However, if the disease was triggered by bleeding, then these drugs will only increase it, leading to the death of the patient.

Stroke diagnosis

For the diagnosis used methods such as:

  • doppler sonography;
  • tomography;
  • angiography;
  • electrocardiogram;
  • echocardiography.

Doppler sonography allows you to exploreblood circulation in the veins and arteries through the use of ultrasound. This study can determine the presence of blood clots, impaired blood flow, and many other problems. High-frequency sound waves are directed to the desired area of ​​the brain.

Tomography allows to determine the differences betweenischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Angiography is an invasive procedure with deep penetration into the patient's body. It can be used in case of need of operation, and also allows to find aneurysm.

Electrocardiogram evaluates activitycardiac muscle and its features, which is important for the examination of the patient. Echocardiography is used to examine the valves and chambers of the heart. This will determine the presence of blood clots or risk factors for blood clots.

First aid

Regardless of the cause of stroke, first aidneed to render timely and correctly. The most important thing is to immediately call an ambulance, and before the doctor arrives, you need to remove all excess clothing, unbutton the belt. Then lay the victim on a pillow so that the head is above the level of the bed.


Provide fresh air into the room, andalso periodically measure the pressure so that the doctor understands the state of the condition. If the pressure is increased, then it is necessary to give the patient the drug, which he usually took to lower it. If there are no required medicines in the house, then you just need to lower the patient's legs into hot water.

When nausea is necessary to take all measures to vomit did not get into the respiratory tract. A patient with a stroke is transported strictly in the prone position.

Carrying out of treatment

The causes and treatment of stroke can be the mostdifferent, it all depends on the individual patient, as well as the type of disease. The most important thing is to take action in the first 6 hours after the attack. Treatment begins with the elimination of heart and respiratory problems. The normalization of cerebral circulation, as well as stabilization of the blood.

For cerebral ischemia, the following is used.drug, as "Aktilize." In addition, antico-analysts are required, for example, Fragmin, Heparin, neurotrophysics — Glycine, Piracetam. Since a patient may have blood clots, it requires diluents, for example, Cardiomagnyl, antiplatelet agents - Tiklid, vasoactive drugs - Sermion, Trental.

Stroke treatment

Since the causes of brain strokehemorrhagic type associated with rupture of blood vessels, it proceeds more severely than ischemic. In the presence of hemorrhage, consultation of a neurosurgeon is required, as well as surgery to remove a blood clot or clamp the vessel.

It is worth remembering that for the treatment of this diseasethere are no effective drugs. Drug therapy is prescribed only for the prevention of complications and the prevention of recurrent stroke.

Stroke rehabilitation

Regardless of the causes of strokein men and women, as well as their age, after treatment, complex rehabilitation is required. The violation of cerebral circulation leads to the formation of a pathological focus in the brain, and the cells around it are in a state of reduced activity or complete inhibition. Timely medical measures will help to return their activity.

Start to carry out rehabilitation activitiesyou need more in the period of stay of the patient in the hospital. Much depends on the psychological attitude of the patient. All ongoing recovery activities are monitored by a neurologist or rehabilitologist. Rehabilitation includes:

  • medicinal preparations;
  • physiotherapy;
  • massage;
  • psychotherapy;
  • physiotherapy.

It is also important to train the patient for lost or impaired skills. In patients who have suffered a microinsult, they recover literally within a month.

It is very important to perform all the exercises recommended by the doctor clearly and systematically, without missing a single day. The peculiarity of physical therapy need to be coordinated with the doctor.

Stroke rehabilitation

With a long period of recovery andpropensity to spasms, massage has a good effect. Proper performance significantly improves blood circulation in the tissues and helps to reduce stagnation. In addition, massage helps regulate muscle tone.

Help for speech disorder treatmentspeech therapist aphasiologist. By performing training exercises using special techniques, the patient can begin to pronounce words, and then whole sentences, much faster. Memory recovery is also required. It is very important to provide psychological comfort for the patient, as this will facilitate faster recovery.

Effects of stroke

The causes and consequences of a stroke need to be considered infirst of all, to prevent deterioration of health and recover quickly. The consequences depend on a variety of factors, in particular such as:

  • degree of damage;
  • localization;
  • speed of assistance.

Some effects may have temporarycharacter, and the patient quickly returns to normal. Heavier brain damage provokes various complications. As a result, the patient’s movements become obstructed or impossible to perform. If you change the gait, you may need to use additional support. In addition, the disease manifests itself in the asymmetry of the face. This affects the cheeks, mouth and lips. This causes very severe discomfort with the consumption of food or liquid, and also leads to a visible cosmetic defect.

Very often in a person after sufferingstroke, there is a violation of sensitivity, which is characterized by a lack of ability to feel heat, cold, pain, or even the part of the body itself. In addition, the consequences can be manifested in the development of pain, which can be different in intensity and localization.

How many live after a stroke

Regardless of the cause of stroke in women andno one can say for sure how many men live after their illness. Each case is individual, as is the person affected by this violation. According to statistics, 35% of deaths occur in the first month after treatment, 50% - in the first year. Sometimes death occurs almost immediately, and in some cases a person can live for a very long time and almost completely recover.

The most common causes that lead to the death of a patient are:

  • tobacco smoking;
  • diabetes;
  • hypertension;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • heart diseases.

With a combination of two or more factors, the risklethal outcome increases significantly. To increase life expectancy, you need to carry out preventive measures and lead a healthy lifestyle. Especially carefully you need to follow all these recommendations in the first months after brain damage, since during this period there is a high likelihood of recurrence.

Possible complications

There are a variety of causes of strokemen and women, which lead to very dangerous complications, that is why to normalize well-being, you must strictly follow all the recommendations of the attending doctor. Complications after a previous stroke are associated mainly not with the violation itself, but with the patient's prolonged lying position.

As a result, pressure sores often occur. Their development begins with the formation of blue-red areas and tissue necrosis gradually occurs. This is a very painful process, and it is difficult to treat.

In addition, another dangerous complicationpneumonia is considered. Its development is due to the fact that disrupted sputum expectoration. Due to stagnation, its accumulation and subsequent infection occur.

Thrombosis in bedridden patients is often hidden underswelling of paralyzed limbs, which greatly aggravates the situation. When a thrombus is removed, the consequences can be very dangerous. The lack of movement often leads to a deterioration of intestinal motility, which can lead to the development of the inflammatory process, as well as intestinal obstruction.

A common complication of stroke is coma. The prognosis for this condition may be different and strictly individual, however, it is worth preparing for a long rehabilitation period and make every effort for recovery.


Since the causes of stroke at a young age and inthe elderly can be very different, it is important to carry out comprehensive prevention in order to prevent the development of a similar condition. This disease is much easier to prevent than to treat for a long time. Preventive measures include:

  • proper organization of work and rest;
  • sleep regulation;
  • good nutrition;
  • stress prevention;
  • salt restriction in the diet;
  • timely treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

The best way to avoid a stroke is toprevention of atherosclerosis and other heart diseases. Monitoring blood pressure and testing for diabetes is very important. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe drugs that normalize the microcirculation of cerebral vessels, as well as medication that prevents the development of hypoxia.

After a stroke, it is important toprevention of its recurrence. The risk is greatly increased in hypertension, valvular pathology, arrhythmias, diabetes, heart failure. Prevention must last at least 4 years and at the same time it is necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

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