The construction of any statehood is alwaysis accompanied by the creation of a public service institution. The significance of this process is extremely great due to the importance of the functions that this service performs for the solution of both the domestic tasks and the tasks of international cooperation. A special feature of the institute of civil service is that its units function in all spheres of the state activity and at all levels of government. That is why the notion and principles of public service are the most important aspect of not only theoretical development, but also practical law-making.
The main purpose of the civil service is toensuring the effective implementation of the functions of the state in all spheres of its presence in society. To the regulation of the civil service of the Russian Federation there is a relatively large number of legal acts related, the main one being the federal law "On public service". It also contains reference norms for more than 20 other normative acts.
As the most important social institution,public service concept, principles, types of its organization and practical implementation act as an objectively necessary condition for the effective functioning of other institutions of society and the state, social and economic activities.
State service as a social institution, arose anddeveloped with close connection with the development of society itself. That is why it is now organized in such a way as to be as effective as possible to maintain the systemic integrity of the society and its unity in the performance of socially significant tasks.
Traditional practice is the classification of civil service into two types.
The first of these is civil,general-purpose, and special. The general-purpose service has no sectoral division and represents the performance of professional duties by the subject within the authorities or other structures of public administration. The special civil service is distinguished by its expressed industry purpose, for example, service in the courts, the prosecutor's office, the diplomatic service, etc.
The second type of civil service - militarized - involves the implementation of specific competencies in the armed forces of the state, the police, customs authorities, the Ministry of Emergencies and other areas.
The most important condition for constructing an effectivecivil service are the principles by which it is formed and functions. The existing principles of the civil service are the most important regulatory and legal provisions that reflect the connections and patterns of its organization, as well as the leading trends in the evolution of this institution. Practically all principles of the civil service are fixed in the relevant legal acts that regulate its implementation. In theoretical sources, as a rule, various reasons are given, according to which the principles of civil service are classified. Consider those of them, which are fixed specifically in the legislation of the Russian Federation.
1. The rule of law presupposes that all available laws of the Russian Federation dominate by their legal force over various departmental instructions and administrative acts.
2.The principle of the priority of human rights demands that all civil servants in their activities be guided by the interests of citizens and respect the fundamental human rights that are recognized as dominant over the interests of the state itself.
3.Principles of public service, ensuring the system integrity of the institution of state power throughout the country. This principle objectively follows from the federal form of the state-territorial structure of Russia.
4.The principle of separation of branches of power, which positions the legal status of the state, presupposes self-restriction of power and balancing one branch of the other by a clear distribution of powers between them.
5. The principle of equal access for citizens of professional vacancies in institutions and public service bodies.
6. principles of public service, providing a hierarchical system of building its bodies, in which decisions of higher bodies are mandatory for execution by subordinate ones.
7. The principle of unity puts forward the requirement of uniformity for all its types and forms, regardless of regional and level implementation.
8.The principle of professionalism establishes that public service is a highly professional type of activity, and therefore it is possible to staff the apparatus on a competitive-competence basis.
9. The principle of openness is the openness and accessibility to every citizen of any information relating to his personal activities.
10. The principle of responsibility of subjects performing duties in the civil service for improper implementation of its regulations and rules.
11. The principle of staff stability implies the implementation of a policy of continuity and retention of staff.
All these principles are organically interconnected into an integral system, which, in turn, contributes to the development of a qualitative personnel policy of the state.